Entertainment Markersets

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There are total ten different skeleton markersets that can be used for entertainment applications. Among these markersets, some of the placements are shared. For example, the Baseline (37) markerset serves as a starting point, and the other baseline markersets add more markers to it. When attaching the markers, you should reference the skeleton avatar from the Skeleton Pane for relative locations. The following charts and pages provide additional descriptions to where each marker should be placed, find related markers or click on one of the baseline markerset pages for specific placement descriptions.

List of Baseline Markerset

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Asymmetry

Asymmetry is the key to avoiding the congruency for tracking multiple markersets. When there are more than one similar marker arrangements in the volume, marker labels may be confused. Thus, it is beneficial to place segment makers — joint markers must always be placed on anatomical landmarks — in asymmetrical positions for similar rigid bodies and skeletal segments. This provides a clear distinction between two similar arrangements. Furthermore, avoid placing markers in a symmetrical shape within the segment as well. For example, a perfect square marker arrangement will have ambiguous orientation and frequent mislabels may occur throughout the capture. Instead, follow the rule of thumb of placing the less critical markers in asymmetrical arrangements.

Baseline Markers

  • Front view of the Baseline (37) markerset.
  • Back view of the Baseline (37) markerset.
Head Markers
Label Related Segment Description
HeadTop Head Place the marker on the head tip.
HeadFront Head Place the marker at the center of the forehead.
HeadSide Head Place the marker on the either side of the head, slightly above the ear. When capturing multiple actors with similar proportions, place the marker on opposite side for clearer distinction.
Torso Markers
Label Related Segment Description
BackTop Torso Place the marker on the spine right below the neck. For best results, LUArmHigh-LShoulderBack-BackTop-RshoulderBack-RUArmHigh markers should align roughly in a straight line when the actor is in T-pose. Also, note that this marker must be placed at an elevation higher than the chest marker for the torso segment to be tracked properly.
Chest Torso Place the marker at the center of the sternum, about 5 cm below where the neck starts.
BackLeft Torso These two markers are located symmetrically on each side of the back, slightly below the lowest end of the shoulder blade (scapular bone).
BackRight Torso
Waist Markers
Note that the waist markers are the key markers in modeling the pelvis bone, which is the major segment governing the other subsequent skeleton segments. For best results, avoid placing the waist markers in a rectangle shape. When tracking multiple actors with similar proportions, introduce an offset to one of the WaistBack marker, or the WaistCMarker (included only with the 13 additional markerset), to create an asymmetrical arrangements.
Label Related Segment Description
WaistLFront Pelvis Placed the marker on the protruding bone located on the front of the pelvis (left/right anterior iliac spine bone). The prominence can be palpated from left and right side of the waist.
WaistRFront Pelvis
WaistLBack Pelvis Place the WaistLBack and WaistRBack markers above left/right hip; about 10 cm above the hip joint.
WaistRBack Pelvis
Shoulder Markers
When placing the shoulder markers, ask the actor to stand in the T-pose in order to place the markers on accurate locations. It could also be helpful to ask the actor to do few rounds of arm abduction and adduction to palpate for the shoulder axis. These markers determine the width of the shoulder and respective relationship with the upper arm segment.
Label Related Segment Description
LShoulderBack Shoulder Place the marker on the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) on the back.
RShoulderBack Shoulder
LShoulderTop Shoulder Place the marker at the top of each shoulder where you can palpate the protruding bone, which is usually located just before where the upper arm start when in T-pose. More specifically, the prominence is on the distal end of the clavicle bone (acrominoclavicular joint).
RShoulderTop Shoulder
Arm Markers
Label Related Segment Description
LElbowOut Upper Arm Place the marker on the lateral side of the elbow joint, slightly towards the upper arm. More specifically, on the lateral epicondyle of the distal end of the humerous. Ask the actor to flex and extend the arm few times to confirm that markers are placed along the elbow axis and maintain stationary throughout the range of motion cycles.
RElbowOut Upper Arm
LUArmHigh Upper Arm Place the marker on the back of the upper arm near the groove between the triceps. For best results, LUArmHigh, LShoulderBack, BackTop, RshoulderNack, and RUArmHigh should align roughly in a straight line when in T-pose.
RUArmHigh Upper Arm
Hand Markers
For best results, place the hand markers so that the shape of the marker arrangement is asymmetrical itself and also unique to the shape on the other hand. Since the wrist marker placement is fixed along the wrist axis, offset the HandOut or the HandIn markers to create the unique arrangements. For more robust and simple tracking, hand rigid-bodies can be attached on the hand to replace the markers and guarantee the asymmetrical and non-deforming marker placement.
Label Related Segment Description
LWristOut Fore Arm / Hand Place the marker on the outside (lateral side) of the wrist axis. (distal end of the radius bone). Note that the wrist axis is not always located on the protruding bone but 1-2 cm more towards the hand.
RWristOut Fore Arm / Hand
LWristIn Fore Arm / Hand Place the marker on the inner prominence (medial side) of the wrist axis (distal end of the ulnar bone).
RWristIn Fore Arm / Hand
LHandOut Hand Place the marker slightly below the pinky knuckle. More specifically, between distal end of the fifth and fourth mertacarpal bones.
RHandOut Hand
Leg Markers
Label Related Segment Description
LThighFront Upper Leg Place the marker on the front side of the thigh, along the midline. For best results, slightly offset the height of the left and right markers to introduce the asymmetry.
RThighFront Upper Leg
LKneeOut Upper Leg Place the marker on the outter prominence of the knee joint; on the lateral epicondyle of the femur. Palpate the knee for the protruding bone from the upper leg, and place it right on the axis. Ask the actor to flex and extend the knee few times to confirm that the markers are placed along the axis and maintain stationary throughout the range of motion cycles.
RKneeOut Upper Leg
LShin Lower Leg Place the marker on the shin bone; on the midline of the lower leg. For best results, slightly offset the height of the left and right markers to introduce the asymmetry.
RShin Lower Leg
Foot Markers
Label Related Segment Description
LAnkleOut Lower Leg/Foot Place the marker on the protruding bone outside of the ankle joint; on the lateral end of the malleolus bone.
RAnkleOut Lower Leg/Foot
LToeOut Foot Place the marker just before the little toe joint; on the distal end of the fifth metatarsal bone.
RToeOut Foot
LToeIn Foot Place the marker just before the big toe joint; on the distal end of the first metatarsal bone.
RToeIn Foot


Additional Markers

Higher count markersets have extra markers added to the Baseline (37) markerset. Hinged toe markersets have two extra markers on each foot to show bending in the tip of the foot. Finger markersets have extra markers on the hand for estimating the finger pose. The upper body and lower body markersets use same marker placements but only on one half of the body.

Hinged Toe Markers
Hinged toe markersets create toe segments in the skeleton. Two additional markers are added to each foot, one on the toe-tip and another on the heel. The hinged toe markers are included in all baseline markersets except for Baseline (37) and Upper Body markersets.
Label Related Segment Description
LHeel Foot Place at the center of the heel.
RHeel Foot
LToeTip Toe Place the marker on the tip of the second toe; next to the big toe.
RToeTip Toe
Hand + Finger Markers
Finger markersets include extra markers on the fingers, and the finger tracking is done by analyzing the kinematics of the hand and estimating the pose of each finger. The WristIn marker is removed and replaced by a forearm marker. Attaching finger markers uses mocap Velcro gloves and hand markers, which can be found from our webstore.
FingerMarkers.png MarkerSetFingers.png FingersStrech11.png
Label Related Segment Description
LFArm Forearm Place the marker on the front side of the forearm while in T-pose. For best results, slightly offset the left and right forearm markers to introduce the asymmetry on each side.
RFArm Forearm
LWristOut Fore Arm / Hand This marker is not included in the finger markersets. Place the marker on the outside (lateral side) of the wrist axis. (distal end of the radius bone). Note that the wrist axis is not always located on the protruding bone but 1-2 cm more towards the hand.
RWristOut Fore Arm / Hand
LThumb Hand Place the marker on the side of the thumb joint.
RThumb Hand
LIndex Hand Place the marker on the side of the index finger joint (proximal interphalangeal joint).
RIndex Hand
LPinky Hand Place the marker on the side of the pinky finger joint (proximal interphalangeal joint).
RPinky Hand
LHandIn Hand Place the marker on the knuckle of the index finger, but slightly towards the side.
RHandIn Hand
LHandOut Hand Place the marker on the knuckle of the pinky finger, but slightly towards the side.
RHandOut Hand
Additional Markers in the Baseline (50)
In this marker set, there are multiple additional markers added to the Baseline (37). The marker placement can be found in the Skeleton Pane. The following chart provides additional explanations on the marker locations.
Label Related Segment Description
HeadLeft Head Included in place of the HeadSide marker. Place the marker on the left side of the head, slight above the ear. For best tracking results, place either the HeadLeft marker or the HeadRight marker slightly further behind the ear in order to introduce more distinct asymmetry to left and right side.
HeadRight Head Included in place of the HeadSide marker. Place the marker on the right side of the head, slightly above the ear. See above descriptions for the HeadLeft marker for comments on the asymmetry.
ChestTop Torso Included in place of the Chest marker. Place the marker at the center of the chest (sternum); approximately 5 cm below where the neck starts.
ChestLow Torso Included in place of the Chest marker. Place the marker where bottom of the two rib cages conjoin; the lowest end of the sternum (xiphoid process).
WaistCBack Pelvis Place the marker about 5 cm above the pelvis bone, near the center of the waist back (on the spine) with a slight offset towards the right (or left). This is usually located slightly above one of the dimples located on the waist back (posterior iliac spine bone).
LFArm Fore Arm Place the marker on the front side of the forearm while in T-pose. For best results, slightly offset the left and right forearm markers to introduce the asymmetry on each side.
RFArm Fore Arm
LHandIn Hand Place the marker below the knuckle of the index finger.
RHandIn Hand
LThighSide Upper Leg Place the marker on the lateral side of the thigh. Ideally, L/R ThighSide, L/R KneeOut, and L/R AnkleOut markers should be aligned roughly in a straight line.
RThighSide Upper Leg
Headband Markers
When a headband — instead of the mocap beanie — is used to place the head markers, the HeadTop marker is removed and an extra HeadSide marker is added.
Label Related Segment Description
HeadFront Head Place the marker at the center of the forehead.
HeadLeft Head Place the marker on the left side of the headband, slightly above the ear.
HeadRight Head Place the marker on the right side of the head, slight above the ear. For best results, try to place the side markers in an asymmetrical arrangement and avoid creating isosceles triangle from the three markers.