Biomech (57)

Main pageSkeleton TrackingBiomechanics MarkersetsBiomech (57)

Biomech49.png
The anterior and posterior views of the Biomech Markerset (49). The calibration markers are highlighted in red.

Markers[edit]

Head Markers
Labels Related Segment Anatomical Location Placement Description
LAH Head Left Anterior Head Place the markers on the left and right side of the fore head. The respective location is shown in the skeleton figure.
RAH Head Right Anterior Head
LPH Head Left Posterior head Place the markers on the left and right side of the head about 2 cm behind the ear. The respective location is shown in the skeleton figure.
RPH Head Right Posterior head
Torso Markers
Labels Related Segment Anatomical Location Additional Description
SJN (IJ[1]) Thorax Sternum Jugular Notch Top most section of the sternum. Place the marker on the center of the two clavicle bones.
SXS (PX[1]) Thorax Sternum Xiphoid Process Lowest section of the sternum. Place the marker 1-2 cm above where bottom of the two rib cages conjoin.
CV7 (C7[1]) Thorax Cervical Spine Vertebra 7 The 7th cervical spine vertebra is the largest vertebra located at the most inferior region of the neck. This section usually protrudes to the posterior side and can be palpated.
TV2 (T2[1]) Thorax Thoracic Spine Vertebra 2 The second thoracic spine vertebra is located three spine levels below the C7 vertebra. Which is located approximately at same height with shoulder joint markers.
TV7 (T7[1]) Thorax Thoracic Spine Vertebra 7 Usually located at the center of the thoracic spinal column.
LHGT Upper Arm / Shoulder Left Glenohumeral Joint Place the marker on the posterior side of the shoulder axis. Ask the subject to posture in T-pose while placing the markers.
RHGT Upper Arm /Shoulder Right Glenohumeral Joint
Waist Markers
Note that the waist markers are the key markers in modeling the pelvis bone, which is the major segment governing the other subsequent skeleton segments.
Labels Related Segment Anatomical Location Additional Description
LIAS (PSISl[2][1]) Pelvis Left Iliac Anterior Spine Place the marker on the protruding bones located on the left and right side of the pelvis front.
RIAS (PSIS[2][1]) Pelvis Right Iliac Anterior Spine
LIPS (ASIS[2][1]) Pelvis Left Iliac Posterior Spine Place each marker on the two dimples which can be palpated near the spine right above the hips.
RIPS (ASIS[2][1]) Right Iliac Posterior Spine
Upper Extremity Markers
Labels Related Segment Anatomical Location Placement Description
LCAJ (LA[1]) Thorax Left Clavicle-Acromion Joint Ask the subject to stretch both arms towards the side (T-pose), then palpate top of each shoulder for the protruding bone. The prominence is usually located at the end of the corresponding clavicle bone just before where the upper arm starts.
RCAJ (RA[1]) Thorax Right Clavicle-Acromion Joint
LHLE Upper Arm Left Humerus Lateral Epicondyle Placed the markers on the lateral side of the elbow axis. Flex and extend the arm few times to find where elbow axis is located.
RHLE Upper Arm Right Humerus Lateral Epicondyle
LHME* Upper Arm Left Humerus Medial Epicondyle Place on the medial side of the elbow axis. Ask the subject to flex and extend the arm while placing the markers.
RHME* Upper Arm Right Humerus Medial Epicondyle
LUA Upper Arm Left Upper Arm Ask the subject to stand in T-pose while placing the marker. Palpate to find the groove between the triceps muscles where skin movements are relatively minimal.
RUA Upper Arm Right Upper Arm
Hand Markers
For best results, place the three hand markers so the created shape is asymmetrical (avoid isosceles shape) and unique from the marker arrangements on the other hand. Since the wrist markers have defined placement — along the wrist axis — introduce small amount of positional offset to the LHM2 and RHM2 markers.
Labels Related Segment Anatomical Location Placement Description
LHM2 Hand Left Hand Second metatarsal Place the marker slight below the knuckle of the index finger.
RHM2 Hand Right Hand Second metatarsal
LUSP Hand Left Ulna Styloid Process Place the marker on the lateral side of the wrist axis.
RUSP Hand Right Ulna Styloid Process
LRSP Hand Left Radius Styloid Process Place the marker on the medial side of the wrist axis.
RRSP Hand Right Radius Styloid Process
Lower Extremity Markers
The joint center of the knee and the ankle is modeled at the midpoint of the lateral and medial joint markers (FLE/FME and FAL/TAM). Assuming that center of the femoral head aligns with the center of the acetabulum, its virtual location is modeled using markers on the pelvis segment (posterior and anterior iliac spine markers). The lower extremity segments are modeled along these three virtual locations.
Labels Related Segment Anatomical Location Placement Description
LFTC (GT[2]) Pelvis Left Femoral greater Trochanter Place the markers on left and right side of the hip, where you can palpate the hip joint or the most lateral prominence of the greater trochanter.
RFTC (GT[2]) Right Femoral greater Trochanter
LFLE (LE[2]) Upper Leg Left Femur Lateral Epicondyle Place the marker on the lateral prominence of the knee joint axis. More specifically, the marker should be placed on the femur epicondyle. You may need to ask the subject to flex and extend the knee few times to locate the axis.
RFLE (LE[2]) Right Femur Lateral Epicondyle
LFME* (ME[2]) Upper Leg Left Femur Medial Epicondyle Place the marker on the Medial prominence of the knee joint axis. Ask the subject to flex and extend the knee few times to locate the knee axis.
RFME* (ME[2]) Right Femur Medial Epicondyle
LTH Upper Leg Left Thigh Place the markers at the front center of the thigh near the midline. This marker is placed for distinguishing left and right side of the skeleton. For best results, slightly offset the height of right and left marker to introduce an asymmetry.
RTH Right Thigh
LSK Upper Leg Left Superior Knee Place the markers on the shin bone near the midline of the lower leg. This marker is placed for distinguishing left and right side of the skeleton. For best results, slightly offset the height of right and left marker to introduce an asymmetry.
RSK Right Superior Knee
LTTC (TT[2]) Lower Leg Left Tibial Tubercle Place the marker about 2-3 cm below the knee cap bone. This marker should be placed on the most anterior point of the tibial tuberosity.
RTTC (TT[2]) Right Tibial Tubercle
LFAX (HF[2]) Lowe Leg Left Fibula Apex While standing, place the markers approximately 5 cm below the LFLE and RFLE markers. This marker should be placed on the lateral prominence of proximal end of the fibula.
RFAX (HF[2]) Right Fibula Apex
Foot Markers
Labels Related Segment Anatomical Location Placement Description
LFAL(LM[2]) Lower Leg/Foot Left Fibula Ankle Lateral Place the maker on the lateral side of the ankle axis; on the lateral prominence of the lateral malleolus bone.
RFAL Right Fibula Ankle Lateral
LTAM* (MM[2]) Lower Leg/Foot Left Talus Ankle Medial Place the maker on the medial side of the ankle axis; on the medial prominence of the medial malleolus bone
RTAM*(MM[2]) Right Talus Ankle Medial
LFM5(VM[2]) Foot Left Foot Fifth Metatarsal Place the marker on the dorsal aspect of the fifth metatarsal bone.
RFM5 Right Foot Fifth Metatarsal
LFM2* (SM[2]) Foot Left Foot Second Metatarsal Place the marker on the dorsal aspect of the second metatarsal bone.
RFM2* Right Foot Second Metatarsal
LFM1 (FM[2]) Foot Left Foot First Metatarsal Place the marker on the dorsal aspect of the first metatarsal bone.
RFM1 Right Foot First Metatarsal
LFCC (CA[2]) Foot Left Foot Calcaneus Place the marker on center of the heel, where the Achilles tendon attaches to the calcneous bone.
RFCC Right Foot Calcaneus (Heel)
LDP1 Toes Left First Distal Phalanx Place the marker near the end of the big toe. More specifically, the marker should be placed at the distal end of the first phalanges.
RDP1 Toes Right First Distal Phalanx

References[edit]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Leardini, A., Biagi, F., Merlo, A., Belvedere, C., Benedetti, M.G., 2011. Multi-segment trunk kinematics during locomotion and elementary exercises. Clin. Biomech. 26, 562-571.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 Leardini, A., Sawacha, Z., Paolini, G., Ingrosso, S., Nativo, R., Benedetti, M.G., 2007. A new anatomically based protocol for gait analysis in children. Gait Posture 26. 560-571.